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The Learning Theory Behavioristik

Diposting oleh Didik Apriyanto | 8:40 PM | 0 komentar »

Is a theory that explains the behavior that is entirely the result of learning activities.
Figures of the thinking and theory
a) Thomdike Edward Lee (1874-1949)
According Thomdike, learning events are terbentuknya associations between events, called the response to the stimulus.
He experiment with a cat that be in a closed cage with a small door that automatically opens that can be touched. If placed outside the cage and cat food will be tried out with the experiment-experiment (trial) and failure-failure (error) first and then work out as is done repeatedly. So that the most basic form of learning is the "Trial and Error Learning" or "Selecting and Connecting Learning." Often called the theory of learning theory koneksionisme or association.
b) Iván Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936)

Classic Conditioning (pengkondisian or requirements kaasik) is a process where the original stimulus and neutral stimulus paired with the conditional repeated so bring the desired reaction.
He experiment with how the operation on a dog collar so that visible water liurnya gland. If something is food, it will spit out the dog. Now before the food is, first shown red rays (artificial stimulus). Liurnya water itself will be out, and when done repeatedly and on a show only when the red rays are without food akan show liurnya water. This is called conditional Reflek (Conditional response).
Becterev students use the principles of Pavlov on the human in daily life. The songs sound like the seller or the Walls ice-cream bell sound dikelas. Unwitting mark something going process.
c) Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990)
Approach known as direct instruction model (directed instruction) and menyakini that behavior is controlled through the process of Operant Conditioning pengkondisian or operant (ie a process of behavior carry a positive or negative reinforcement can lead to behavior that can be repeated again, or disappear as you wish. Examples of carry - the reinforcement when the child gets a small smile chewing by adults who gemas view. But children tend to repeat the deeds that do not accidentally or without specific purpose. is smiling and chewing behavior carry brace is positive.
d) Robert Gagne (1916-2002)
Gagne called the modern neobehaviorits, encourage teachers to plan intruksional learning style and atmosphere so that learning can be modified and the teacher must know the basic capabilities that must be prepared. The biggest contribution intruksional Gagne's theory is "9 Conditions Intruksional", namely:

Gaining the attention attention =
Learning objective of Intorn = inform students on the objectives to be achieved.
Stimulate recall of prerequisite learning stimulation = Basic preparation for student learning.
Present new material = new serving mareri
Provide guidance to provide guiding =
Elicit performance action = create
Provide feedback about correctness = ready to give feedback directly to the good results.
Assess performance = rate of the study indicated.
Enhance Retention and recall = increase the memory storage process and remember.

e) Albert Bandura (1925 -)
Bandura theory explains human behavior in the context timbale interaction between the back of sustained cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences and the basis of behavior modeling which is used in a variety of mass education. For example in the ad televise.

Application of learning theory Behavioristik students
Teachers prepare lesson materials in the form that has been prepared so that the goal of learning a student must be submitted in full by the teacher
Many teachers do not give lectures, but the instructions are followed by brief examples of both themselves and the simulation is done
Lesson materials prepared in the hierarchy from the simple to the complex
Learning-oriented results that can be measured and observed
Errors must be corrected immediately
Repetition and practice are used so that the desired behavior can become a habit
Evaulasi or assessment based on behavior that appears.

Advantages and Disadvantages Learning Theory Behavioristik
Disadvantages:
Student learning based on the teacher (teacher Centered learning), are meanistik, and only focused on the results observed and measured
Students only listen to the orderly explanation teachers and memorize what is heard and seen as an effective way to learn
The use of punishment as a way for students mendisiplinkan both verbal and physical punishment could result in bad for students.
Advantages:
Very suitable to obtain the capability that requires practice and pembiasaan unsure-containing elements such as speed, spontaneity, kelenturan, reflex, and endurance.
Example: Percaapan Foreign languages, dancing, typing, sports, etc..
Diterapkakn suitable to train the children who still need the role of adult dominance, love, and must repeat the dibiasakan, imitative and happy with the forms of appreciation are given directly as a gift or a compliment.
Can be controlled through how to change the natural stimulus with the right stimulus to get the desired response, repetition, while the individual does not realize that it is controlled by a stimulus coming from outside himself.


Learning humanistic theory

The Theory
Humanistic is to the problem how each individual and is influenced and led by private purposes that they connect to the experiences of their own.

Learning Theory framework to think
According to the purpose of studying this theory is treat human behavior means each person determined by the people themselves and to understand the human environment and the educators themselves sendiri.Menurut flow this I forming materials and lessons must be served in accordance with students' feelings and concerns. Experts humanistic view of two parts, namely the learning process: the process pemerolehan new information and personalissi information on this individual.

Figure-Tokohnya

Comb Arthur (1921-1999)
Meaning is the basic concept that is used or is used. Learning occurs when students have a sense for the students themselves, teachers can not force the material on siswa.Guru must understand the behavior of students with understanding the perception of students if you want to change the behavior of students. Comb the bad behavior is the mauan students to do something that does not itself cause for satisfaction.

Maslow
This theory is based on the assumption that in humans there are two things that is a positive effort to develop and strength to oppose or reject the development. In the men themselves have various feelings of fear, but people also have feelings for pushing forward the kea rah unikan to themselves, towards all the functions of the ability can be developed. Maslow divides human needs into a hierarchy of seven each hierarchy has a role in the level of which must be dipanuhi of the most basic.

Carl Rogers
Roger distinguish two types of learning are: cognitive (kebermaknaan), experiental (penaglaman or significant), namely the teachers' academic pengetahauan in pengatahuan terpakai.experiental Learning appoints apda needs and desires of students.

Principles of humanistic study:
A. Humans have a natural learning
B. B elajar significant mqateri plajaran occurred when students felt mempuyai particular relevance to the purpose
C. Study concerning changes in the persep [si on himself
D. Learning tasks that threaten the self is more easily dirasarkan if the threat is small
E. Bancaman when there is low pangalaman students in obtaining caar
F. Diperolaeh meaningful learning if students do
G. Lancer learning if students involved in the learning process
H. Study involving students seutuhnya can deliver the depth
I. Belief in the self ditumbuhkan students to familiarize with the introspective
J. Social learning is learning about the learning process.

Application Theory
Applications in theory this is more to the ruh or spirit in the process of learning the coloring methods diterapkan.Peran teachers only as fasilitatorbagi Siwa and with the motivation, awareness for students, guiding and facilitating students' role as a Student of the main memaknai process pambelajaran nya.Tujuan learning more preferably at prosenya not hasilnya.Proses on learning in general, the study is to formulate a clear goal, mengusahaan the participation of students, encourage student initiative to critical sensitive, express opinions, and receive a teacher trying to give students the opportunity and the evaluation On the theory of learning is more emphasis on the process of the learning outcomes students must sehigga active.

Advantages and Disadvantages
This theory is suitable to apply in the material of the formation of personality, conscience, change attitudes and analysis of social phenomena. Indicators of success of this theory, students are happy, enthusiastic, initiative in learning, and paradigm change going students, attitudes and behavior on their own volition. The characteristics of good teachers and less according to humanistic
Teachers according to this theory is: Teachers who have a sense of humor, fair, interesting, more democratic, able to relate easily with students and wajar.Ruang kelads more open and able to adjust to the changes. While teachers are not effective teachers who have a low sense of humor, it's easy not to be patient, like the traumatic feelings siswaa with komentsr ysng tortious, act somewhat authoritarian, and less sensitive to changes that have.

SOURCE MATERIALS
Ahmadi, Abu Supriyono.2004.Psikologi Widodo and Learning. Rineka Cipta.Jakarta
Dakir.1993. Basics Psychology. Pelajar.Yogyakarta libraries.
Sukmadinata, Nana Syaodi.2004. Platform Process Psychology Education. Rosdakarya. Bandung.
Sugiharto dkk .2006 Educational Psychology. FIP UNY.
Suyantinah. 2000. Educational Psychology. FIP UNY.
Purwanti endang, Nur widodo.2005.Perkembangan Participants Didik.Malang: Muhamadiyah University Malang

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