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Elaboration of learning

Diposting oleh Didik Apriyanto | 8:35 PM | 0 komentar »

Education now are required to constantly make innovations in learning, in the different aspect, from the vision, mission, goals, programs, services, methods, technologies, processes, and evaluation. For a faculty selection model of learning should be done carefully, so that option is appropriate or relevant to the various aspects of the other, efficient and interesting. Furthermore, many experts stating that the subject of any material which is accompanied with the model without learning the right lessons learned will not bring the maximum results. Elaboration strategies learners are learning strategies that add additional ideas based on what you already know someone before (Ormrod, 2006). Elaboration is in order to associate the items can be remembered with something else, such as phrases, scenes, scenic, places, or stories (Papalia, 2004). Srategi learn effectively used this idea when it is added in accordance with penyimpulan. Study the implications of this strategy is to encourage students to dive into the information itself, for example, to draw conclusions and speculate about the implications that may

The elaboration of learning
Elaboration of learning is learning that add additional ideas based on what you already know someone before (Ormrod, 2006). Elaboration is in order to associate the items can be remembered with something else, such as phrases, scenes, scenic, places, or stories (Papalia, 2004). Learning is effective when ideas are used in accordance with the added penyimpulan. Study the implications of this strategy is to encourage students to dive into the information itself, for example, to draw conclusions and speculate about the possible implications. Children use prior knowledge is so new ideas can be expanded, thus can store more information than is actually presented. Elaboration clearly help students learn and remember the material in class more effectively than if not. Children start mengelaborasi experience since the beginning of the preschool period (Fivush, Haden, & Adam, 1995 in Ormrod, 2006). Examples of the use of elaboration is when a child aged 11 years considering the musical staff lines (E, G, B, D, F) with the way they associate with the phrase "Every Good Boy Does Fine."
Elaboration of the theory of exclusive talk about the macro level that describes the method relating to the relationship some ideas, such as how to weave these ideas. On this page will be three kinds of methods of learning: organizational, delivery, and management. Elaboration theory does not relate to the strategic delivery and management, although it is a variable that needed to be combined into several theories and models of learning. If you want to use the optimal and comprehensive development for learning and planning.
Theory elaboration only related to the organizational strategy on the macro level. Started teaching this theory to provide explanations of a general, simple, basic but not abstract. This theory also describes the use of a series of prerequisit from the simple to the more compleks series, and review conclusions and systematic way.
Important part of dealing with the subject material is prerequisit learning. The concept of learning prerequisit include the fact that knowledge must be obtained before the other. A set of learning called learning prerequisit Hierarchy.

B. THEORY elaboration
Elaboration of the theory presented Reigeluth and Stein (1983) using seven-component strategy, namely: 1) sequence elaboratif for the main structure of teaching, 2) learning prerequisite sequence (in each subject studies), 3) summarizer (summary). 4) syintherizer, (Sintesa) 5) analogy, 6) Cognitive strategy activator (pengaktif cognitive strategies), 7) control study.
As disclosed Degeng (1989), the developer-developer of the theory after Gagne, as Rugeluth, Merrill, and Bunderson introduce other characteristics of the structure of subjects based on the relationships that have antarbagian content subjects. In general, the structure of the course structure can be described on the conceptual, procedural structure. teoritik structure.
Conceptual structure is a structure that shows the relationship higher / lower among concepts. Structure of a concepts course to achieve competency conceptual orientation. Three important types of conceptual structure is the Taksonomi, Taksonomi type, or matrik table. Based on the description above, the subjects classified Literary Theory course bertipe conceptual Taksonomi bagaian. Taksonomi is the conceptual structure that indicates that the concepts are part of a more general concept.
Learning is defined as a prerequisite structure that shows the concepts that must be learned before the other concepts can be learned. Therefore, it shows the relationship prerequisite for a concept study. Summary of the review is back (review) of the material that has learned to maintain Retention. Function to provide a brief statement about the materials that have been learned and examples of reference that is easy to remember for each concept. Summaries provided at the end of a lecture, and only summarize the material be referred to a new internal (internal summarizer), while the sum of all the materials several times a lecture called external (within set summarizer).
Pensintesis (synthesizer) is a theoretical elaboration of the components serves to show links between concepts. Pensintesis important because it will provide some knowledge about keterkaiatan antarkonsep, facilitate understanding, enhance kebermaknaan the context indicates a concept, to give effect motivasional, and to increase Retention (Degeng, 1989).
Analogy is an important component in understanding the ease of learning as a way to compare the new knowledge with the knowledge that students are well known (Reigeluth and Stein, 1983b). Pemakaiannya more effective when delivered early in the learning process (Degeng, 1989).
Pengaktif strategy is a cognitive learning skills that students needed to manage internal processes while he was learning, remembering, and thinking that consist of two ways: through the design of teaching and told students to use it. Use pictures, diagrams., Mnemonik, analogy, and parafrase, and questions can work to meet this purpose.
According to Merrill (in Degeng, 1989) conception control study based on the freedom of students in their choice of contents and pengurutan subjects who learned (content control), the components of teaching strategies used (display control), and cognitive strategies to use (Conscious cognition control). Various components on the elaboration theory, such as sum, pensitesis, analogy, provide the opportunity for students to learn to control.
Learning that is designed based on the elaboration theory run with seven principles, namely: 1) to present the subject in the framework of phase or the first meeting; 2) parts which are covered into the framework of the content should be gradually dielaborasi; 3) The most important should be the first time dielaborasi; 4) The depth and broadness elaboration should be optimal; 5) Pensintesis should be given after each perform elaboration, 6) Type pensintesis should be tailored to the type of content subjects; 7) Summary should be given before each time you serve pensintesis (Degeng, 1989).
Merril (1983) propose four forms of presentation, ie presentation primary, secondary presentation, view the presentation, display and presentation procedure. The forms of presentation are reviewed based on the primary spesifitas (specificity) and the material dimensions of students' expectations of responsiveness: jeneralitas presentation, for example, ekspositif and inkuisitif It is said further, that the four primary types of presentation can be dielaborasi with a number of secondary presentation.
The types of secondary presentations are: elaboration prerequisite, additional information about the concepts of components that make up jeneralitas; contextual elaboration, additional information such as background or historical context. Elaboration mnemonik, bantu memory tool to help students remember. According to Meier (2002), among acronym, akrostik sanjak, physical movement; matemagenik elaboration, the tool carrier's attention, such as arrows, color, bold, graphic; elaboration representation, or an alternative presentation, which is a form of representation with a / way, and Feedback or knowledge about the results achieved.

C. STRATEGY components
Theory elaboration presents seven strategic components:
1. Order elaboratif structure for the main teaching
2. Preskripsi for pengurutan variation in individual teaching a curriculum (including the prerequisite sequence learning).
3. Creating summary
4. Make Sintesa
5. Making the analogy
6. ktivator strategy kognitive
7. Format control students.
1.Rangkaian elaborative
Elaborative series is typical of a series of simple to complex. Elaborative series from simple to more complex series yng where,
The general idea is depicted not only summarize the idea that there is
Representation (epitomize) be based on a single type of material.
Epitomizig vs. Summarizing
Representation (epitomize) and summarize divided in two important things;
1.Menyajikan the idea that small classes have been learned
2.Menyajikannya the concrete, penuharti, at the application level.
While summarize penyajiannya consider matters more knowledgeable, but more superficial, abstract, considering the levels.
Single type of material
With attention to a single type of material, epitomizing the process is done with one of the three types of materials: concepts, procedures, principles. The concept is a set of objects, events, symbols that have a certain character. Knowing the concept of meaning can identify, recognize, classify, describe things. Procedure is the set of actions that affect the sesuaatu which is dicapai.Prinsip recognize changes in the relationship between things and changes in the other. This is also called a hypothesis, proposition, rule, law depends on the amount of evidence is correct. Three types of materials were selected the most important for achieving common goals in the classroom. For further elaboration have a series of characterization: conceptual organization, organizational procedures, epitomizing the theory organisasi.Esensi process requires:

- Select one type of material as the material organizations (the concept, principles, procedures)
- Select one type of material as the material organizations (the concept, principles, procedures)
- Create a list of materials on the organization that has been learned in the classroom.
- Select a few materials the organization a more basic, simple, and fundamental.
- Presents ideas on the application level
Theory elaboration elaboration propose three different ways based on the three types of materials.
2. Order prerequisite learning
Rangkain learning prerequisit learning based on the structure, or the Hierarchy of learning. Structure is the structure of the study show that the facts or ideas that should be before getting a new idea. This indicates that there is a prerequisit the idea. Learning prerequisit can be considered as a critical component in the suati issues / ideas. Components critical to the principles are:
Concept
Changes in the relationship
Critical component in the concept are:
1.mengenal attributes
2. relationship between them.
While the component is a critical step in the procedure used in cases of:
1.deskripsi more details on the action
2. concepts related to the action.
3. Creating summary
In the learning process is very important to review the sistimatik what has been learned. Summarize the components is a strategy that provides:

- A short statement on each issue / idea and the fact that you have learned
- Example of reference for any issues / ideas
- Some diagnose, test for self-practice for each problem / idea.

There are two types of summaries in theory elaboration:
Summary from within, which comes on the end of each lesson, and only a summary of ideas and facts that have been learned. Collection of summaries, summaries of all the facts and ideas that have been learned throughout the lessons in the collection of material that students learned. A set of lessons are some lessons, plus lessons dielaborasi, plus other subjects that also dielaborasi.
4. Sintesa.
Very important in learning and incorporate the material / ideas that have been learned, such as:

- Giving different values to the knowledge of students.
- Provide facilities-depth understanding of the individual through comparison and differences.
- Add an effect on motivation and keberartian new knowledge.
- Increasing the memory by adding the creation of new and related knowledge among students with new knowledge relevant to the previous knowledge.
In theory elaboration, Sintesa strategy is to connect and combine the set of concepts, collection procedures, collection of principles.
5. Analogy
Analogy is an important component in the strategy of learning as this will make it easier to understand the issues / ideas with them with new problems / ideas which are well known. Analagi describes the similarity between the problems / with the new ideas which are well known beyond the material taught. Analogy to help when there is a problem / idea that is difficult to understand, connect with the material that is difficult and we know not to knowledge but who are well known beyond the material taught.
6. Activator cognitive strategies
Learning will be more effective to broaden the students' needs or does not realize that using the conscious cognitive strategies that are relevant, because the process of how the student input is a series of processes that are important in learning. Cognitive strategies are sometimes called general competence which covers workmanship and skill to learn to think that can be used extensively on the material, such as mengkreasikan mental image and recognize the analogy. And cognitive strategies can be activated during bepbelajaran. Two meanings in the settlement has been described Rigney (1978) as follows:

- First, learning can be designed in any way to encourage students to use specific cognitive strategies, often unconsciously, in reality, students use this strategy ini.Strategi include learning to use pictures, diagrams, mnemonic, analogy, and equipment that encourage students to interact with the material certain.
- The form of the second strategy is aktivator which directly employ cognitive strategies that have been obtained previously.

7. Student control.
Students are given freedom in the selection and sort:

1. The material has been learned
2. Rank will be
3. Component of learning strategies that are used and the sequence
4. Specific cognitive strategies that students take when dealing with the learning process.


Elaboration of learning is learning that add additional ideas based on what you already know someone before. Learning is effective when ideas are used in accordance with the added penyimpulan. Study the implications of this strategy is to encourage students to dive into the information itself, for example, to draw conclusions and speculate about the implications of theory elaboration that may only relate to the organizational strategy on the macro level. Started teaching this theory to provide explanations of a general, simple, basic but not abstract. This theory also describes the use of a series of prerequisit from the simple to the more compleks series, and review conclusions and systematic way.

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